Jernbanenyheder III. kvartal 2001
- Denmark: New loco for Vestbanen - 2 minutes
of silence for the WTC victims - Wiebe locos for track rebuilding in
Denmark - 9 more Desiro's for DSB - TraXion derailment - MY 1158 to
VNJ - Private railway locos on track rebuilding workings - SB M 11 engine
failure - DSB Museumstog S-tog rescue action - VNJ MY 1154 on lease
to TraXion -
MZ 1401 on lease to Railion? - Railion Denmark A/S officially started
operations - MY 1154 to Vestbanen
- Croatia: Loco rebuildings
- Germany: Class 103 10-day diagram - Frontal collision near Lindau - NVAG Nohab and freight operation takeover - Class 232 rebuildings and class 234's to DB-Cargo - ICE3 speed record - Class 152 complete - Last class 211 withdrawn - New 9-day 103 diagram
- Hungary: MÁV/GySEV orders Taurus-locos - NOHAB chartertrain in Hungary by Nostalgia Ltd.
- Kosovo: Di3 working for KFOR
- Luxemburg: 3020 on fire and one more Dispolok for CFL - Class 3000 delivery complete
- Norway: Final Di3's to Italy - Di3 to Italy - Class Di.4 to be overhauled in Copenhagen
- Romania: CFR orders 120 Desiro DMU's
- Sweden: DSB coaches to Stockholm - ÖBB 1043 to Tågab - Blue-X locos rebuild for 180 km/h - Ikea Rail AB to work through Sweden-Germany freight service
- Switzerland: First Ae 6/6 withdrawn - ICN derailment
- United Kingdom: Freightliner orders 6 more class 66 locos
- Model railways: Heljan announces DSB class PR steam loco for 2002 - O-scale MY?
|Headlines: European Railway News|
|Denmark: Danske Statsbaner (DSB) & private railways|
New loco for Vestbanen: Vestbanen had it's new loco, VNJ MY 1158 transferred on 19. September 2001 in train PM 8359. The loco has had new markings and the Vestbanen logo applied on the front. The loco has already been in extensive use with its new owner, see more below.
VNJ MY 1154 is currently used by TraXion with TBL MY 1110 on the Tinglev-Århus container trains.
The Henschel-loco VNJ DL 14 has been sold to a German locobuyer and was transferred from Varde to Padborg via Tønder-Tinglev on 25. September 2001 in train PM 6337, hauled by VNJ MY 1158 (30. September 2001, source John Nissen and others).
2 minutes of silence for the WTC victims: All trains in Denmark was stopped for two minutes from 12.00 on 14. September 2001 in sympathy with the victims of the World Trade Center and Pentagon terror actions in USA on 11. September 2001 (17. September 2001).
Wiebe locos for track rebuilding in Denmark: Two German locos from track rebuilding company Wiebe is currently in Denmark. Wiebe will be rebuilding the Vojens-Vamdrup line, for which workings among other the Wiebe lok 3 is currently in Vojens and Wiebe V320 001 is in Padborg. About 150 passenger trains will be replaced by bus, while about 180 freight trains will be either delayed or diverted via Malmö-Ystad or Malmö-Trelleborg, while the line will be shut down on several occasions. It is believed that the V320 will work several trains on the Padborg-Vojens line while rebuilding takes place.
Wiebe lok 3 is the former DB 212 107, while Wiebe V320 001 is the former DB 232 001, from 1975 Hersfelder Eisehbahn Gesellschaft V30, from 1989 Teutoburger Wald Eisenbahn V320, from 1995 Servizi Ferroviari, Udine, Italy,from 2000 reimported by Wiebe to Germany. (10. September 2001, various sources, including Holger Cordtz. Wiebe on the internet: www.wiebe.de. Photo by Holger Cordtz added 12. September 2001, V320 001 also by Holger Cordtz added 17. September).
Also Wiebe lok 6, former DB 216 032-3, has been in Denmark, the loco was seen in Padborg on 19. September 2001. V320 001 has been used to hauled freight wagons with sleepers from Germany to Vojens, while lok 3 has been used for hauling the track rebuilding train. Also TraXion has been participating in these workings, with TBL MY 1134 (30. September 2001, source Zløve and others).
9 more Desiro's for DSB: DSB has ordered 9 more class MQ Desiro DMU's for use on the Odense-Svendborg line. At the same time 20 new DMU's has been put out for tenders to be delivered in 2004, from when the class MQ will be transferred to the Århus-Grenå line (4. September 2001).
TraXion derailment: On the afternoon of 3. September 2001 several wagons of the TraXion container freight train GF 8647 hauled by MY 1134-MY 1122 derailed in Hedensted between Vejle and Horsens. 4 wagons went of the track and some containers fell of the train. The line was closed until next morning. TraXion uses MÁV Lgs-wagons for the Tinglev-Aarhus freight (3. September 2001, see videoclip here)
MY 1158 to VNJ: Vestbanen (VNJ) has bought their second class MY from DSB, MY 1158, to be transferred mid-September. (3. September 2001).
Private railway locos on track rebuilding workings: VLTJ Mx 26 'Tørfisken' has been on lease to BaneStyrelsen to help out on track-rebuilding preparations on the Bramming-Tønder line in the end of August 2001. Currently OHJ MX 104 is in Herlev for track rebuilding work on the Herlev-Vanløse line (3. September 2001).
SB M 11 engine failure: SB M 11 (former OHJ Mx 102) suffered a major engine failure mid-August after only few months in use with the new owner. Currently the loco is in repair in the DSB Copenhagen Workshop (3. September 2001).
S-tog rescue action: DSB are currently recieving 120 new S-tog units for the surburban railways around Copenhagen. On 7. August 2001 trainset -39 was delivered.
On the other hand are the old S-tog class MM-FS / MU-FU being outphased. In the summer and autumn of 2000 several units was scrapped in Århus. From August 2001 a new company based in Holbæk has the 'honour' of getting the old trainset cut into pieces. The first delivery of MM 7604-FS 7104 - MM 7601-FS 7101 - MM 7650-FS 7150 - MM 7669-FS 7169 took place on 6. August 2001. However, in the afternoon of 7. August 2001 the first delivered trainset MM 7601 (Frichs 889/1966) + FS 7101 (Scandia 26747/1967) was "rescued" by DSB Museumstog, who hauled this trainset back to Copenhagen with MY 1159 + 1101 + 1135! This follows the policy of preserving the first delivered unit of many loco classes in recent years (MY 1101, MX 1001, MZ 1401).
DSB MM 7501 (Frichs 882/1967) + FS 7001 (Scandia 26785/1968) has also been reserved for preservation, and is to be rebuild as some sort of conference train. This trainset was the first to have 1. class accomodation, as FS 7001 was delivered as AS 7001 (which only lasted until 1972) (8. August 2001).
VNJ MY 1154 on lease to TraXion: TBL MY 1134 has suffered a brake failure and was transferred to the NVAG workshop in Niebüll. Meanwhile Vestbanen MY 1154 are on lease to TraXion and will propably be used on the Tinglev-Århus freight trains (2. August 2001).
MZ 1401 on lease to Railion?: Rumours are suggesting that MZ 1401, owned by DSB Museumstog, will be on lease to Railion from next week, as the avaibility of class MZ is very low at the moment (5. July 2001, source dk.fritid.jernbaner).
MZ 1401 is on lease for use on the Skanderborg-Herning line upgrade. Also Hjørring Privatbaner Henschel-loco HP 16 is helping, following engine failure on one of the trolleys of Banestyrelsen (21. July 2001).
On 28 July 2001 MZ 1401 was returned to Copenhagen Works in G 9154 hauled by EA 3021 with MZ1414+MZ1401 death
in tow. MZ 1401 had some kind of failure, but was ready for work again on 31. July 2001 and can still be found on track rebuilding trains on the Skanderborg-Herning line. Also HP 16 is still in use, on the photo by John Nissen it is seen in Laven on 14. July 2001 (2. August 2001).
Railion Denmark A/S officially started operations: On 27. June 2001 the agreement on Railion Denmark A/S entry into Railion GmbH was officially signed. Railion Denmark A/S is a subsidiary company to Railion GmbH, owned by Deutsche Bahn, NS Groep NV and DSB. Former DSB freight operating part DSB Gods has ceased all operations and is totally merged into Railion.
Railion Denmark A/S is already present on the Internet, where some retouched photos of class EG-locos are showing the possible new livery in red and blue. A list of locomotives and freight wagons is also available. Its head quarters is the office building at the Copenhagen Freight yard on Bernstorffsgade 50 (29. June 2001, sources www.railion.dk and DSB).
MY 1154 to Vestbanen: DSB MY 1154 has been sold to Vestbanen (VNJ), which wants to replace the Henschel diesel loco DL 14 with the ATC-equipped MY-loco. It will be ready within the next 3 weeks. DL 14 is to be sold to a German company. On the photo is MY 1154 many years ago when still in use in passenger traffic. (26. June 2001).
MY 1154 will be transferred to Varde on monday 9. July 2001, leaving Copenhagen Gb at 16.36, Slagelse 17.39 - 18.07, Nyborg 18.30 - 19.32, Middelfart 20.32 - 20.38, Esbjerg 22.04 - 22.08 and then arrival in Varde at 22.23 (5. July 2001).
|Croatia: Hrvatske Zeljeznice (HZ)|
Loco rebuildings: Early this year HZ and Koncar signed an agreement for the thyristorization of 12 locomotives ASEA class 1141.2 with greater maximum speed of about 140 km/h than subclasses 0 and 1. Those locos are mostly on use on the Zagreb - Vinkovci line hauling IC trains. Apart from thyristorization the modernized locomotives will be equipped with an electrodynamic brake, and of particular interest is the new cab design with screen commands. The locomotives also have a new livery design, identical to the prototype locomotive 1141 301. Even though according to the agreement the first delivery of the new locomotive was planned for 31st August 2001, it is highly unlikely that the loco will be in function before this winter. All thyristorized units will be in Zagreb depot. Also all locomotives subclass 2 were originaly produced in Koncar electric works in Zagreb under ASEA's licence.
First two units
1141 205 will be 1141 376
1141 211 will be 1141 377
A photo of 1141 301 by Dragutin Stanicic is available at http://mercurio.iet.unipi.it/ric/pic_1141301strana.htm, while more technical Information can be found on http://mercurio.iet.unipi.it/ric/1143.htm (3. September 2001, source Toma Bacic)
|Germany: Deutsche Bahn AG (DB) & private railways|
Class 103 10-day diagram: The ageing star-locos of DBAG, the baureihe 103, has a new 10-day diagram from 30. September. The diagram can be found on the Lok-Report website (30. September 2001).
Frontal collision near Lindau: Two regional trains had a frontal crash near Lindau am Bodensee on 27. September 2001. 62 people where injured, 9 of them seriously. Most of the passengers where school children. The locodriver of RB 32204 from Lindau to Friedrichshafen ran across a stop-signal when departing from Enzisweiler and ran into the RB 32203 Singen - Lindau (30. September 2001, source Lok-Report)
NVAG Nohab and freight operation takeover: Nordfriesische Verkehrsbetriebe AG (NVAG) has taken over the former PBS MY 1148. The loco is owned by the former manager of PBS and has been stored in Niebüll since PBS went bankrupt in spring 2001. The loco has been repainted into dark red with stripes. First working in Denmark was on 20. September 2001, when working a Tønder-Sønderborg freight.
On 26. September 2001 NVAG started operating the Tønder-Grenaa-Tønder aluminium freight train again, a train wich used to be run by PBS, but has been halted for nearly a year. Train FX 8997 was planned to be hauled by NVAG MY 1148 + VNJ MY 1158, but due to technical problems with 1148 it was worked by VNJ MY 1158 alone on the 10 GE Rail Capital Habis4 freight wagons. After standing in Grenaa most of 27. September it returned on the night to Tønder with 500 tonnes of Aluminium for the two companies in Tønder, Heat Transfer and Hydro Aluminium.
On the other hand NVAG and DB-Cargo has made an agreement on the future of freight operation in northern Schleswig-Holstein. NVAG is to take over freight services on the north-west coast (the Marschbahn) on the Maschen-Rendsburg-Niebüll-Itzehoe-Maschen line, including the island Sylt with the Niebüll-Westerland line, as well as on the Niebüll-Flensburg-Süderbrarup-Kappeln line. Some of the workings are to be done by Angeln Bahn GmbH (AB), while NVAG is to buy several modernised former DR V100-diesels.
Class 232 rebuildings and class 234's to DB-Cargo: DBAG is going to replace the engines in at least 64 locos of the class 232. The new engines will also be build by russian Kolomna, but be more energy-saving and less noisy. Other rebuildings will take place as well in order to make the locos more suitable for future use, new class designation will be 233.
Also, DB-Regio is to hand over several class 234's to DB-Cargo, into a new sub-class 232.9. The ZWS-equipment for push-pull operation will be removed. Locos will be located in Rostock Seehafen and Seddin (10. September 2001, source Lok-Report).
ICE3 speed record: The DBAG ICE3 set a new speed record on 3. September 2001 when reaching 368 km/h on the Wolfsburg-Rathenow line. This will allow the trainsets to run at speeds up to 330 km/h from autumn 2002 on the Köln-Rhein/Main Neubaustrecke, thus allowing a travel time between Köln and Frankfurt of only 59 minutes (4. September 2001, source Eurailpress).
Class 152 complete: DB Cargo 152 170 was succesfully tested on 31. July 2001 and delivered as the last of its class. Originally 195 locos was ordered, but later it was decided to order 25 Taurus class 182, more or less similar to ÖBB class 1116 instead of the last 25 152's.
First loco, 152 001, had its roll-out from Krauss-Maffei on 10. December 1996, while the first regular workings was in the end of July 1997. 152 032 was delivered as 152 190, having other electrical equipment with a IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) instead of the GTO used in the other 169 locos. So loco numbers are 152 001-031, 033-170, 190.
Also private railway operators has ordered class 152's; Siemens Dispolok had 152 901 and 902 delivered in May 2000.
A series of 100 multi-voltage locos class 189, derived from class 152 will now be delivered to DB Cargo (2. August 2001, sources Lok-Report and Wolfgang Klee: Die Baureihen 101, 145, 152 und 182. Eisenbahn Journal Sonderausgabe 1/2001).
Last class 211 withdrawn: The last dieselhydraulic loco class 211 (originally DB V1001) was withdrawn on 21. July 2001, when the Hofer Museumslok V100 1023 was Z-gestellt. The loco will be preserved by DB Museum Nürnberg. Also the class 212 are being replaced quickly by the delivery of lots of new DMU's (2. August 2001, source www.v100.de).
New 9-day 103 diagram: From 5. August 2001 until 29. September 2001 the class 103 of DBAG will have their own Umlaufplan again with 9 locos running InterRegio-trains Berlin - Frankfurt/Münster/Bad Bentheim and Münster - Koblenz and the night train NZ 1948/1949 Berlin - Dortmund and D 370/371 Dortmund - Bad Bentheim. Reason is many class 101 and 120 down (1. August 2001, source Lok-Report).
The following diagrams are covered by class 103 from 5. August - 29. September 2001, weekend turns are identical except IR2005/8 turn short at Halle. IR2008 is extended to Pasewalk on Sunday!
Monday - Friday 1) Berlin Ostbf 05.40 IR2005 11.57 Frankfurt/M 14.07 IR2008 20.18 Berlin Ostbf2) Berlin Ostbf 07.20 IR2344 11.34 Bad Bentheim 12.28 IR2343 16.31 Berlin Ostbf 19.25 IR2540 23.22 Münster (Westf)3) Münster (Westf) 08.28 IR2432 11.08 Koblenz Hbf 12.48 IR2431 15.27 Münster (Westf) 16.28 IR2532 19.08 Koblenz4) Koblenz Hbf 08.48 IR2533 11.27 Münster (Westf) 12.28 IR2430 15.08 Koblenz Hbf 16.48 IR2433 19.27 Münster (Westf) xx.xx 77601 xx.xx Bad Bentheim 22.26 D371 23.xx Dortmund5) Dortmund 00.18 NZ1949 07.06 Berlin Lichtbg Berlin Ostbf 11.20 IR2342 15.34 Bad Bentheim 16.28 IR2345 20.31 Berlin Ostbf Berlin Lichtbg 22.25 NZ1948 6) 04.43 Dortmund 05.xx D370 06.34 Bad Bentheim 06.xx 77152 07.xx Münster (Westf) 08.41 IR2543 12.31 Berlin Ostbf 15.20 IR2340 19.34 Bad Bentheim 20.28 IR2347 22.20 Hannover Hbf7) Hannover Hbf 07.38 IR2346 09.34 Bad Bentheim 10.28 IR2341 14.31 Berlin Ostbf 17.23 IR2542 21.37 Bad Bentheim 21.xx 75221 22.xx Osnabrück8) Osnabrück 05.xx 75222 05.xx Bad Bentheim 06.25 IR2541 10.31 Berlin Ostbf 13.20 IR2544 17.23 Münster (Westf) 18.41 IR2547 22.33 Berlin Ostbf9) Berlin Ostbf 07.40 IR2007 13.57 Frankfurt/M 16.02 IR2006 22.18 Berlin Ostbf
(2. August 2001, source Philip Wormald).
|Hungary: Magyar Államvasutak (MÁV)|
MÁV/GySEV orders Taurus-locos: Hungarian State Railways MÁV and the private operator GySEV has ordered a total of 15 locos of the Taurus-family from Siemens Verkehrstechnik. The locos will be similar to the ÖBB 1116-class, capable of running on both 25 kV/50 Hz (on the Hungarian lines) and 15 kV/16 2/3 Hz (Austrian and German lines). Total price of the 15 locos is 46 mio Euro. MÁV will recieve 10 locos while GySEV will have 5 locos, delivery will take place between June and December 2002 (30. September 2001, source Siemens).
NOHAB chartertrain in Hungary by Nostalgia Ltd.: There will be an charter train in Hungary with an M61 (M61,001 or 020) on 8. September 2001 running Budapest - Rajka - Bratislava (SK) - Komarom - Budapest. Departure time: 7:00 AM from "Füsti" (National Railway's History Park), Budapest 14, Tatai út 95; tickets are available for HUF 4.000 plus 30 SK at the Nostalgia-shops at Budapest-Nyugati pu. and at Belgrad rkp. (1. August 2001, source Akos Horvath).
Di3 working for KFOR: Former NSB Di3.619 is now working in Kosovo togehter with Di.3.633, 641 and 643. KFOR News online runs a newsletter with a bit of info and photos of the loco in Lipjan on http://www.kforonline.com/news/reports/nr_03sep01.htm
|Luxemburg: Société Nationale de Chemin de fer Luxembourgeois (CFL)|
3020 on fire and one more Dispolok for CFL: After only less than one month in use CFL 3020 had a serious fire damage on 20. August 2001 and has been dumped out of use on Luxemburg depot. The loco can be expected to be sent away for repairs. A further 5 locos of the 3000-class is currently in repair, 3 with pantograph problems.
To ease the motive power crisis, CFL have recently taken delivery of an 8th Dispolok, ME 26-01.
Withdrawn 3606/3607/3613 are now dumped behind the old depot building whilst withdrawn 3601 is stored inside the depot in a stripped state. 1803 is still dumped and has started to be used for spare parts, 1816 is awaiting repair, and 1804 is
still restricted low power. Withdrawn 3604 and 3620 are dumped at Hollerich (10 September 2001, source European Rail Gen).
Class 3000 delivery complete: All 20 locos of class 3000, numbers 3001-3020, has now been delivered to Luxemburg, with 3018/3019/3020 arriving on 30. July 2001.
|Norway: Norske Statsbaner (NSB)|
Final Di3's to Italy: Di3.626 and 630 is to arrive in Göteborg (Sweden) on 12. September to go to Italy.
Di3 to Italy: The two class Di3 Nohabs stranded in Ystad in southern Sweden for nearly a month on their way to Sicily. The problem was apparently that the Italian State Railways FS wouldn't allow the heavy locos to being transported through Italy. However, now Di3.622 and 631 are on their way through Poland (2. August 2001, source Postvognen).
Class Di.4 to be overhauled in Copenhagen: NSB is going to let one of the class Di.4 diesel-electrics be overhauled by the DSB main workshop (Centralværkstedet) in Copenhagen. The five class Di.4 is the last NSB GM-powered locomotives and it's therefore to expensive to maintain the Marienborg workshop in Trondheim. Initially one sample loco will be overhauled (10. May 2001).
NSB Di.4 653 is in Copenhagen since around the 25. May 2001 for overhaul (29. May 2001).
Di4.653 was tested succesfully on 4. July 2001 between Copenhagen and Ringsted and will return to Norway on the night of friday 6. July 2001 (5. July 2001).
The other 3 class Di4 diesels to be overhauled in Copenhagen will be Di4.654, arriving in the end of August 2001, Di4.651 October 2001 and Di4.655 in January 2002. (1. August 2001).
|Romania: Cãile Ferate Române (CFR)|
CFR orders 120 Desiro DMU's: For the use in suburban and regional services CFR has ordered 120 Siemens Desiro-units (like DBAG 642 and DSB MQ). This will probably be the end of many loco-hauled services in Romania (1. August 2001, source ERG).
|Sweden : Statens Jarnvägar (SJ) & other operators|
DSB coaches to Stockholm: Storstockholms Lokaltrafik (SL) is in need of new stock for expanding its lines in the Greater Stockholm Area (see also news 2001/II). As an agreement still hasn't been made with DBAG on buying class 420 EMU's, SL is to lease 14 class Bn-coaches of DSB, which will be operated with top-and-tail surplus Green Cargo Rc-locos during daytime (30. September 2001, source Jan Lundstrøm).
ÖBB 1043 to Tågab: TÅGAB of Sweden has bought the 9 remaining ÖBB class 1043's, which are quite similar to the SJ Rc2-class. 1 loco has been scrapped following a bend frame after a fall in the works a few years ago.
The locos will be leased to Green Cargo, the Swedish freight operator which took over SJ Gods on 1. January 2001 (3. September 2001, source SJK)..
Blue-X locos rebuild for 180 km/h: As replacement for X2000 trains which were forced to go over to Linx, SJ has rebuild Rc6 1420 into a new class Rc7, capable of 180 km/h. At least Rc6 1421 and 1422 are also being rebuild in this way, while Rc6 1418 and 1419 may be rebuild for 200 km/h. Also 27 coaches are rebuild into 4 trainsets - all painted in a handsome dark blue livery (8. August 2001, source SJK).
Ikea Rail AB to work through Sweden-Germany freight service: From 1. September 2001, Ikea Rail AB (owned by the well-known furniture manufacturer Ikea) will start a monday-friday freight service Älmhult - Copenhagen - Hamburg -
Duisburg. It is planned to extend the freight hauled by rail to 50% of all Ikea goods, including services to Poland, Italy and Belgium. The motive power used for these trains are not yet known, but class 66 GM-diesel locos might be a good guess (5. July 2001, source Banestyrelsen).
|Switzerland : Schweizerische Bundesbahnen (SBB) & other operators|
First Ae 6/6 withdrawn: The first of the 120 locos of class Ae 6/6, Ae 6/6 11410 "Kanton Basel-Stadt", was withdrawn on 13. September 2001, due to damage on the front following a collision in Dietikon in May 2001 (30. September 2001, source BahnCH).
ICN derailment: On 29. July 2001 a ICN tilting Intercity train derailed near Zürich-Oerlikon, when one bogie of the train going 80 km/h went off the track. The train was en route from Zürich-Flughafen to Zürich-Hauptbahnhof when the accident occured. The reason was a breaking engine in the second wagon in the train. Parts of the engine was underneath the train for several houndred meters before the derailment. All other 22 ICN-trains are currently being checked for similar faults (2. August 2001, source bahn-CH.
|United Kingdom : English, Welsh & Scottish (EWS) & other operators|
Freightliner orders 6 more class 66 locos: A further six Class 66/5's are being built on spot hire for Freightliner, in the hope that by the time the locos are built the company will need extra locos. The numbers will be 66555-66560 with a delivery at the start of 2002.
The next six Freightliners 66526-66531 are awaiting lifting from GM in Canada for Halifax and due at Newport in the second half of August. They will start their journey from GM London to the UK on 2. August 2001. Total series 66 construction completed or ordered now stands at 340 locos (2. August 2001, source GMgen).
Heljan announces DSB class PR steam loco for 2002: Heljan advertises in the current issue of the model railway magazine Lokomotivet, that they will make the 2C1-T4 steam loco class PR in HO-gauge in 2002. The PR locos where rebuild from class P atlantics in the begining of the 1950's and where famous for a bad look but good run on the tracks! (26. June 2001).
O-scale MY?: O-Scale-Models of Germany is currently investigating the posibility of releasing a class MY loco in scale 1:45. See more details on http://www.o-scale-hobbyshop.de/ where you can participate in a survey if you're interested in such a model (select umfrage) (19. June 2001).